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### Contents

• Functions
• Examples and How To

## Taylor Series

The statements

syms x
f = 1/(5 + 4*cos(x));
T = taylor(f, 'Order', 8)

return

T =
(49*x^6)/131220 + (5*x^4)/1458 + (2*x^2)/81 + 1/9

which is all the terms up to, but not including, order eight in the Taylor series for f(x):

Technically, T is a Maclaurin series, since its expansion point is a = 0.

The command

pretty(T)

prints T in a format resembling typeset mathematics:

6       4      2
49 x     5 x    2 x
------ + ---- + ---- + 1/9
131220   1458    81

These commands

syms x
g = exp(x*sin(x));
t = taylor(g, 'ExpansionPoint', 2, 'Order', 12);

generate the first 12 nonzero terms of the Taylor series for g about x = 2.

t is a large expression; enter

size(char(t))
ans =
1       99791

to find that t has about 100,000 characters in its printed form. In order to proceed with using t, first simplify its presentation:

t = simplify(t);
size(char(t))
ans =
1        6988

Next, plot these functions together to see how well this Taylor approximation compares to the actual function g:

xd = 1:0.05:3; yd = subs(g,x,xd);
ezplot(t, [1, 3]); hold on;
plot(xd, yd, 'r-.')
title('Taylor approximation vs. actual function');
legend('Taylor','Function')

Special thanks is given to Professor Gunnar Bäckstrøm of UMEA in Sweden for this example.