Hydraulic variable orifice created by cylindrical spool and sleeve
The Variable Area Hydraulic Orifice block models a variable orifice created by a cylindrical sharp-edged spool and a variable-area slot in a sleeve. The area of the orifice is expected to be computed outside the block and imported via the AR physical signal connection. The Minimum area parameter specifies the minimum orifice area value. If the input signal falls below this level (for example, turns negative), the area is saturated to this value. The flow rate through the orifice is proportional to the orifice area and the pressure differential across the orifice.
The flow rate is determined according to the following equations:
|pA,pB||Gauge pressures at the block terminals|
|CD||Flow discharge coefficient|
|A||Orifice passage area, provided through the signal port|
|DH||Orifice hydraulic diameter|
|ν||Fluid kinematic viscosity|
The block positive direction is from port A to port B. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows from A to B and the pressure differential is determined as .
Fluid inertia is not taken into account.
The transition between laminar and turbulent regimes is assumed to be sharp and taking place exactly at Re=Recr.
Semi-empirical parameter for orifice capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is 0.7.
The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is supposed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches this value. The value of the parameter depends on orifice geometrical profile, and the recommendations on the parameter value can be found in hydraulic textbooks. The default value is 12, which corresponds to a round orifice in thin material with sharp edges.
Leakage area of the completely closed orifice. If the input signal falls below this level (for example, turns negative), the area is saturated to this value. The parameter value must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value is 1e-12 m^2.
Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:
Fluid kinematic viscosity
The block has the following ports: